Paperback - 128pp
A Textbook for Health Care Students
This valuable textbook will help nurses and other health care students achieve confidence and proficiency in performing a variety of calculations, both in the clinical environment and in written tests. It discusses the increasing demands placed upon the numeracy skills of nurses and considers potential sources of calculation errors.
The basics of the decimal system and the four methods of performing calculations are reviewed. Formulae for calculating drug dosages are explored and the use of numeracy in other areas of clinical practice is examined. The book contains a considerable number of self-tests to provide students with feedback on their learning and answers to these activities are provided at the back of the book. All basic calculations will be presented in a health care context with real-world examples from a wide range of practice settings including nursing, midwifery, child health, etc.
Numeracy, Clinical Calculations and Basic Statistics is designed specifically for undergraduate pre-registration nursing and midwifery students. It is also suitable for students on Foundation Degree courses, Access courses, Return to Practice programmes and NVQ courses.
Chapter One: The need for numeracy and calculation skills in the clinical environment.
The current state of nurses numeracy skills. Common calculation errors. The public and professional pressures to demonstrate adequate numeracy skills. Future expectations for the numeracy skills of nurses. Methods of improving numeracy.
Chapter Two: Back to basics
Introduction to the decimal system. The four basic methods of calculating - addition, subtraction, multiplication (inc. multiplying decimals) and division (inc. long division). Percentages and fractions. Converting fractions into decimals.
Chapter Three: The SI system
The origins of the SI system and the common units of measurement for weight, volume and length (microgram, milligram, gram, kilogram, millilitre, litre, etc). Alternative units will also be referred to where these are used clinically e.g. mmHg.
Chapter Four: Calculating drug dosages
Calculating tablets doses. Calculating doses for oral solutions. Calculating doses for injections. Calculating intravenous doses. Drug calculations based on per kilogram of body weight.
Chapter Five: Clinical calculations
Fluid balance records. IV pumps. Nutritional calculations: MUST scores, BMI, body fat calculations. Insulin calculations. MEWS scores. Pressure ulcer scoring systems. PH/logarithmic scales and meaning. Percentages creams/burns.
Chapter Six: Descriptive statistics
Measures of central tendency - mean, median and mode. Measures of dispersion range and standard deviation. Percentiles.